Analiza isplativosti centraliziranog toplinskog sustava na biomasu i komunalni otpad u Zagrebu

Tomić, Tihomir (2014) Analiza isplativosti centraliziranog toplinskog sustava na biomasu i komunalni otpad u Zagrebu. = Economic viability of district heating system with biomass and municipal solid waste in the City of Zagreb. Master's thesis (Bologna) , Sveučilište u Zagrebu, Fakultet strojarstva i brodogradnje, UNSPECIFIED. Mentor: Duić, Neven.

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Abstract (Croatian)

Uporaba centraliziranih toplinskih sustava (CTS) (eng. district heating systems (DHS)) je jedan od načina na koji Europska unija nastoji dostići postavljene ciljeve o smanjenju potrošnje primarne energije te diversifikaciji energetskih izvora. Ovakvi sustavi omogućuju iskorištavanje različitih izvora energije za zadovoljavanje energetskih potreba stambenih zgrada, poslovnih objekata i industrije, a među njima su i energija dobivena energetskom oporabom otpada te goriva koja je teško uporabiti za pogon malih toplinskih kotlova (u ovu grupu danas većinom spada biomasa). U ovome radu je dan pregled 26 energetskih postrojenja koja opskrbljuju postojeće CTS-e u zemljama EU. Posebna pozornost se poklonila postrojenjima za termičku obradu otpada (TOO) (eng. waste to energy (WtE) plants) i postrojenjima na biomasu te, da bi se dao cjelovit pregled i omogućila usporedba, dan je pregled i postojećih postrojenja na fosilna goriva. Podatci potrebni za provođenje ekonomske analize mogu se aproksimirati iz tehničkih i ekonomskih podataka postojećih energetskih postrojenja. Tako dobiveni podatci i količina komunalnog otpada u Gradu Zagrebu određuju proizvodnju toplinske energije koja definira sva razmatrana postrojenja. Dobiven iznos unutarnje stope povrata investicije (eng. internal rate of return (IRR)) je 13,45% za postrojenje za TOO te 17,84% za postrojenje na biomasu. Iz ovih vrijednosti i diskontne stope od 9% može se zaključiti da je investicija u oba postrojenja isplativa te da je, ukoliko se ne uzima u obzir vrijednost rješavanja problema otpada, isplativije investirati u postrojenje na biomasu. Provedena analiza osjetljivosti pokazuje da je isplativost investicije u postrojenje za TOO najosjetljivija na promjenu iznosa naknada za zbrinjavanje otpada (eng. gate fee), dok je isplativost investicije u postrojenje na biomasu najosjetljivija na promjenu otkupne cijene toplinske energije. Što se tiče cijene proizvodnje toplinske energije, njen se iznos u ovome radu definiran preko cijene korištenog goriva čime se dolazi do cijena proizvedene toplinske energije od 0,0121 €/kWh za postrojenje na biomasu, -0,0396 €/kWh za postrojenje za TOO te 0,0363 €/kWh za postrojenja CTS-a Zagreb.

Abstract

The use of district heating systems (DHS) is one of the ways in which the European Union is trying to reach set goals of reducing primary energy consumption and diversification of energy sources. These systems allow the use of different energy sources to meet the energy demands of residential buildings, commercial buildings and industry. Thermal energy produced in waste to energy (WtE) plants and fuels that are difficult to use to drive small heat boilers (biomass is classified in this group) are some of them. A review of 26 district heating plants that supply the existing DHS in the EU Member States is given in this paper. Special attention is given to WtE power plants and biomass powered plants. In order to give a comprehensive overview and enable comparison, an overview of the existing plants powered by fossil fuels is added. The data needed to conduct economic analysis can be approximated from the technical and economic data of existing power plants. By means of calculated data and the amount of municipal waste in the City of Zagreb, production of thermal energy that defines all examined plants is determined. Calculated values of the internal rate of return (IRR) are 13.45% for the WtE plant and 17.84% for biomass powered plant. From the values of calculated IRR and a discount rate of 9% it can be concluded that investment in both plants is profitable and that, when value of solution of waste problem is not taken into account, investment in biomass powered plant is more profitable. Carried out sensitivity analysis shows that the profitability of investments in the WtE plant is most sensitive to changes of gate fees, while the profitability of investments in biomass powered plant is most sensitive to changes in prices of thermal energy. As for the cost of heat production, they are defined through the price of fuel. This methodology of calculation leads to the price of the produced heat of 0.0121 €/kWh for biomass powered plants, -0.0396 €/kWh for WtE plants and 0.0363 €/kWh for district heating plants in DHS Zagreb.

Item Type: Thesis (Master's thesis (Bologna))
Uncontrolled Keywords: Centralizirani toplinski sustav (CTS), postrojenje za termičku obradu otpada (TOO), kogeneracijsko postrojenje, miješani komunalni otpad, biomasa, ekonomska analiza, Grad Zagreb
Keywords (Croatian): District heating system (DHS), waste to energy (WtE) plants, cogeneration, municipal solid waste (MSW), biomass, economic analysis, the City of Zagreb
Subjects: TECHNICAL SCIENCE > Mechanical Engineering
Divisions: 500 Department of Energy, Power Engineering and Environment > 510 Power Engineering and Energy Management Chair
Date Deposited: 01 Dec 2014 08:43
Last Modified: 17 Apr 2020 10:53
URI: http://repozitorij.fsb.hr/id/eprint/3049

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