Utvrđivanje sastava te primjena optimalnih metoda analize uzorka

Stančin, Hrvoje (2018) Utvrđivanje sastava te primjena optimalnih metoda analize uzorka. = Samples property identification and study methodology of samples analysis. Master's thesis (Bologna) , Sveučilište u Zagrebu, Fakultet strojarstva i brodogradnje, Vysoka Škola Banska- Technicka Univerzita Ostrava. Mentor: Duić, Neven and Juchelková, Dagmar.

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Abstract (Croatian)

U ovom radu navedeno je nekoliko ekperimentalnih metoda koje se koriste za ispitivanje kemijskog sastava uzorka i analizu njegove termalne dekompozicije. Analiza je provedena na iskorištenoj otpadnoj krutoj poliuretanskoj pjeni (engl. waste rigid polyurethane foam - WRPUF), koja je bila korištena kao izolacijski materijal u hladnjaku. Analiza ovog uzorka trebala je otkriti produkte njegove degradacije, u prvom redu organski sastav i oslobođene emisije plinova, te mogućnosti iskorištavanja ovog materijala u energetskoj oporabi. Uzorak je podvrgnut različitim eksperimentalnim metodama kao što su: XRF spektroskopija, mjerenje veličina čestica te analitičkoj pirolizi uparenoj sa plinskom kromatografijom i masenom spektrometrijom (Py/GC-MS). Uzorak je dobiven u formi mljevenog praha sa nehomogenom kompozicijom. Priprema uzorka za ispitivanje podrazumijevala je njegovu podijelu na više manjih homogenih frakcija te kreiranje homogenih strukutura za ispitivanje. Analiza se sastojala od ispitivanja organskog sastava na 500, 600 i 700 ºC. Uzorak je podvrgnut analizi u nehomogenoj kompoziciji, kompoziciji sa veličinom čestica iznad 0,25 mm, kompoziciji sa veličinom čestica ispod 0,25 mm te dizajniranoj homogenoj smjesi sa kombinacijom čestica iznad i ispod 0,25 mm. Dodatna analiza provedena je i na osam homogenih frakcija, kako bi se istražio utjecaj veličine čestica na produkte degradacije. Dobiveni rezultati pokazuju kako je homogenizacija uzroka imala veliki utjecaj na formiranje organskih produkata tijekom degradacije. Dominantna organska grupa u svim istraživanjima bili su spojevi sa dušikom (amini i amidi). Značajne koncentracije zabilježene su i kod aromatskih ugljikovodika, alkohola, alkana te alkanoata. Ukupno je identificirano 18 različitih skupina organskih spojeva te preko 200 razlitičih organskih produkata. Njihova prisutnost i udio variraju ovisno o ispitivanoj kompoziciji. Tijekom analize rezultata, posebna je pozornost pridana opasnim i rizičnim kemijskim komponentama, koje predstavljaju prijetnju okolišu i ljudskom zdravlju. Identificirane opasne komponente su: spojevi sa klorom, policiklički aromatski ugljikovodici, furani, ftalati i spojevi sa benzenom. Navedene komponente predstavljaju opasnost za rad energetskih postrojenja, a velik broj posjeduje i kancerogena svojstva. Analiza plinskih produkata prikazuje dominantan udio emisija ugljikova dioksida te raznih dušičnih oksida (CO2,-NOX). Također, zabilježen je i značajan udio emisija amonijaka (NH3) te izrazito štetnog freona, triklorofluorometana (CFC-11). Plinska mješavina produkata sastoji se također i od, uglavnom bezopasnih, cikloalakana i alakana. Na kraju, dobiveni rezultati uspoređeni su sa poznatim sličnim istraživanjima te zakonsko-regulativnim direktivama za proizvodnju goriva iz otpada (engl. refuse derived-fuel - RDF). Na temelju tih usporedbi, izvedeni su zaključci sukladni svrsi rada te perspektive i mogućnosti daljnih istraživanja ispitivanog uzorka.

Abstract

The thesis presents several investigations techniques related to the examination of sample’s chemical composition and thermal decomposition behavior. Investigated sample was waste rigid polyurethane foam (WRPUF) which was used as an insulation material in a refrigerator. The aim of the thesis was to investigate yield of organic compounds and gaseous products from the selected sample and determine whether it can be used for waste-to-energy application. Sample was conducted to several investigations: XRF spectroscopy, particle sizing and analytical pyrolysis coupled with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (Py/GC-MS). Sample was obtained in grinded powder with non-homogenous structure. Sample preparation consists of fractionations and homogenization procedure. Analysis was carried out on three pyrolysis temperatures 500, 600 and 700 ºC. Investigation was performed on non-homogenous mixture, fraction with particle size below 0.25 mm, fraction with particle size above 0.25 mm and homogenized mixture with particles below and above 0.25 mm. Additional analyses was carried out for eight different fractions to determine grain size effect on yield of decomposition products. Obtained results show that homogenization of sample had a huge impact on the yield and composition of organic compounds. Dominant group in every investigation remained compounds containing nitrogen (amines and amides), while considerable share of aromatic hydrocarbons, alcohols, alkanes and alkanoates were detected as well. Around 18 different groups and more than 200 organic compounds were detected, with different share and presence in examined mixtures. During the analysis, special attention was given to the compounds which may be hazardous or harmful to human health. Compounds which are classified as dangerous and were detected during analysis are compounds containing chlorine, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), furans, phthalates, benzene based compounds, etc. Analysis of evolved gaseous products showed that dominant emissions in every investigation were carbon dioxide and nitrogen emissions (CO2, -NOX). Significant emission share was detected for ammonia (NH3) and trichlorofluoromethane (CFC-11). Several others, mostly harmless, gaseous products were detected as well. Additionally, results were compared to similar previous investigations and regulatory framework for refuse derived-fuel (RDF). Finally, adequate conclusion according to study objective was carried out together with perspective for further investigations.

Item Type: Thesis (Master's thesis (Bologna))
Uncontrolled Keywords: WRPUF; piroliza; plinska kromatografija; masena spektrometrija; RDF; energetska oporaba; XRF-spektroskopija
Keywords (Croatian): WRPUF; pyrolysis; gas chromatography; mass spectrometry; RDF; XRF-spectroscopy; energy recovery
Subjects: TECHNICAL SCIENCE > Mechanical Engineering > process energy engineering
Divisions: 500 Department of Energy, Power Engineering and Environment > 510 Power Engineering and Energy Management Chair
Date Deposited: 22 Mar 2018 10:07
Last Modified: 05 Dec 2019 16:45
URI: http://repozitorij.fsb.hr/id/eprint/8534

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