Optimizacija proizvodnje naftnih goriva obzirom na zahtjeve kvalitete

Novak, Frane (2009) Optimizacija proizvodnje naftnih goriva obzirom na zahtjeve kvalitete. = Optimization of production of petroleum fuels due to quality requirements. Scientific master's thesis , Sveučilište u Zagrebu, Fakultet strojarstva i brodogradnje, UNSPECIFIED. Mentor: Šakić, Nikola.

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Abstract (Croatian)

Čitav niz industrijskih grana bazira se na proizvodima iz nafte. Jedna od ekonomski najjačih grana proizvodnje u svijetu je proizvodnja goriva iz fosilnih izvora kojom se zadovoljava veliki dio potreba čovječanstva za energijom. Pri svakoj proizvodnji pa tako i proizvodnji goriva potrebno je voditi brigu i o negativnim efektima koji se pri tome javljaju. U prvom redu to se odnosi na proizvodne emisije koje su nužna nuspojava operativnog rada procesa a rezultiraju manje ili više intenzivnim zagađenjima okoliša. Proizvedena goriva trebaju pri tom biti takve kvalitete da se njihovim izgaranjem u eksploataciji također postižu što manja zagađivanja okoliša a svakako da zadovoljavaju propisane minimalne zahtjeve kvalitete utvrđene suvremenim normama kvalitete. Svijest o očuvanju okoliša potpomognuta opsežnim istraživanjima dovela je do poticanja razvitka niza normi kvalitete goriva. Spoznali su se štetni efekti utjecaja teških metala i sumpora na okoliš. Shodno tome, utvrđene su granične karakteristike kvalitete goriva i njihov utjecaj kako na samu konstrukciju i rad motora tako i na efekte zagađivanja okoliša s prekomjernim sadržajem pratećih štetnih heterogenih spojeva i krutih čestica uz ugljikovodike koji čine osnovu fosilnih goriva. \Nove, široko prihvaćene norme kvalitete goriva stoga nužno utječu na razvoj i tehnološku konfiguraciju rafinerija koje se bave proizvodnjom goriva. U cilju maksimalnog iskorištenja raspoloživih ali ipak ograničenih geoloških resursa ugljikovodika iz nafte i namjeri da se pretvori u visoko vrijedno gorivo, razvio se niz tehnologija koje to omogućuju. Primjerom jednog od mogućih scenarija izgradnje novih postrojenja, promatrane rafinerije, sa željom što veće proizvodnje goriva za motorna vozila pokušao se naći odgovor na pitanje: Koje tehnologije odabrati i kako ih uklopiti u postojeći sustav da bi ostvarili maksimalnu proizvodnju goriva sukladnih suvremenim zahtjevima normi kvalitete? Pri utvrđivanju smjernica odabira tehnologija i načina rada rafinerije korištena je i statistička analiza rezultata mjerenja karakteristika kvalitete motornih goriva u namjeri da se i na taj način dobiju optimalne smjese rafinerijskih poluproizvoda, EURO normama određene kvalitete goriva. Pri odabiru postrojenja tj. potrebnih tehnologija jedan od odlučujućih principa bio je zahtjev za što manjim investicijskim ulaganjima. Odabrane primijenjene tehnologije harmonizirane su posebno razvijenim modelom simulacije rada čitave rafinerije. Takvom simulacijom rada rafinerije potvrđeni svi zahtjevi proizvodnje kvalitetnih, važećim normama propisanih motornih goriva uz minimalne moguće štetne emisije. Primijenjenom metodom optimizacije namješavanja goriva nastojale su se iskoristiti sve raspoložive komponente goriva koje može proizvesti promatrana rafinerija s ciljem maksimiziranja najvrijenijih proizvoda sukladnih EURO V normama kvalitete. Jednostavnim prikazom financijskih efekata proizvodnje osuvremenjene rafinerije zaključuje se da prikazana proizvodnja omogućuje ne samo proizvodnju goriva u skladu s budućim normama kvalitete nego i brzi povrat uloženih investicijskih sredstava. Može se, stoga, zaključiti da razmotreni scenarij osuvremenjivanja promatrane rafinerije zadovoljava temeljne zahtjeve investicijskih ulaganja tj. da je ono tehnič_ki izvedivo, ekološki prihvatljivo i ekonomski opravdano.

Abstract

Several branches of industrial activities are based on production of oil. One of the most economically strongest branches in world manufacture is petroleum production from fossil sources, which for the most part meets and satisfies humanity's needs for energy source. As with every manufacturing process and likewise with the production of fuels, it is crucial to manage risks and negative effects and consequences that may emerge during manufacture. Foremost, this relates to production of emissions which are the side-effects of processing operations and that result more or less in intensive environmental pollution. The fuels produced need to be of particular quality where the burning exploitation leads to minimal pollution of the environment, and certainly meet the regulations for minimum quality standard requirements ascertained in present-day quality norms. Awareness of environmental protection maintenance promoted through extensive research has initiated developments of several fuel quality norms. The harmful effects on the environment from the impact of heavy metals and sulphur have come to knowledge. Accordingly, fuel quality characteristics and their influences are determined, both on motor construction and function and likewise, the effects on environmental pollution due to excessive contents accompanied by harmful heterogeneous compounds as well as hard particles from hydrocarbons that form the base of fossil fuels. The new and widely adopted fuel quality norms imperatively influence developments and technological configurations of refineries that manufacture fuels. Many new technologies were developed to for maximizing utility of scarcely available geological and hydrocarbon resources from oil and for converting them to high value fuel products. In illustrating a possible case for newly constructed plants in the Refinery selected, in aim for maximizing motor fuels production, there was an attempt to answer the following question: What technologies to adopt and how to integrate them into the existing system to maximize fuel production in accordance with present-day quality norm requirements? In order to ascertain what guidelines to use for selecting technologies and the method of operations in the refinery, statistical analyses were conducted on results of measured quality Several branches of industrial activities are based on production of oil. One of the most economically strongest branches in world manufacture is petroleum production from fossil sources, which for the most part meets and satisfies humanity's needs for energy source. As with every manufacturing process and likewise with the production of fuels, it is crucial to manage risks and negative effects and consequences that may emerge during manufacture. Foremost, this relates to production of emissions which are the side-effects of processing operations and that result more or less in intensive environmental pollution. The fuels produced need to be of particular quality where the burning exploitation leads to minimal pollution of the environment, and certainly meet the regulations for minimum quality standard requirements ascertained in present-day quality norms. Awareness of environmental protection maintenance promoted through extensive research has initiated developments of several fuel quality norms. The harmful effects on the environment from the impact of heavy metals and sulphur have come to knowledge. Accordingly, fuel quality characteristics and their influences are determined, both on motor construction and function and likewise, the effects on environmental pollution due to excessive contents accompanied by harmful heterogeneous compounds as well as hard particles from hydrocarbons that form the base of fossil fuels. The new and widely adopted fuel quality norms imperatively influence developments and technological configurations of refineries that manufacture fuels. Many new technologies were developed to for maximizing utility of scarcely available geological and hydrocarbon resources from oil and for converting them to high value fuel products. In illustrating a possible case for newly constructed plants in the Refinery selected, in aim for maximizing motor fuels production, there was an attempt to answer the following question: What technologies to adopt and how to integrate them into the existing system to maximize fuel production in accordance with present-day quality norm requirements? In order to ascertain what guidelines to use for selecting technologies and the method of operations in the refinery, statistical analyses were conducted on results of measured quality

Item Type: Thesis (Scientific master's thesis)
Uncontrolled Keywords: motorna goriva; norme i kontrola kvalitete; rafinerijski procesi; procjena ulaganja; optimizacija namješavanja
Keywords (Croatian): fuels for vehicles; quality norms; statistical quality analysis; refinery processes; investment estimation; blending optimization
Subjects: TECHNICAL SCIENCE > Mechanical Engineering
Divisions: 700 Department of Industrial Engineering
Date Deposited: 22 Sep 2014 18:00
Last Modified: 23 Dec 2020 10:35
URI: http://repozitorij.fsb.hr/id/eprint/1081

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